|Dating:||350 AD450 AD|
|Origin:||Roman World, Eastern Roman World, Roman Palestine|
|Material:||Glass (all types)|
|Physical:||11.4cm. (4.5 in.) - 75 g. (2.6 oz.)|
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Glass kohl tube, Palestine, 350-450 AD
Ivory kohl stick
Kohl tubular jar, Syria, 200-300 AD
Now slightly iridescent, this kohl (eye paint) tube was originally blown from translucent light green glass. The body was folded, then decorated with one uninterrupted thread from bottom to top, applied counterclockwise over twenty one revolutions while the piece was held at the bottom of the U with a pontil (mark still visible). The rims were carefully infolded. Small coil handles were affixed to each side. There is no suggestion that this may have had the third basket handle typical of later productions. |
Following Sterns classification (2001), this kohl tube is Type 1, Class C.2 (double), which would place it in Palestine, mid fourth to mid fifth century AD.
Doppel-unguentarium, glasgrünes Naturglas... spiralförmig. Syria, 4th century AD ( Münzen und Medaillen 1986:16 #48).
Unguentarium in greenish glass with trailed decoration. Height 14 cm. Syria, 3rd.-6th. century AD. For trailing, a lump of softened glass is readily drawn out into a thread which may be wound upon and attached to the surface of heated vessel. At first the Roman glassmakers used the technique for quite modest decoration of their vessels. Later Roman glass tends to be wild, extravagant and irregular in form, and this was reflected in the use made of trailed decoration. Elaborately tooled handles, forms distorted with the use of tongs and pincers, and trails dribbled on the surface appear towards the 3rd century AD. Towards the 4th century AD, the Roman glassmakers became even more technically daring, creating tiers of tall loops for handles, and geometric lacings that stood away from the main body of the vessel, sometimes virtually obscuring the simple blown forms they decorated. A case in point is the fairly commonplace green glass unguentarium illustrated in this book, which is nearly covered with trailing. (Hurst Vose 1975:82).
The invention of glass blowing at the end of the first century BC was one of a handful of momentous technological breakthroughs that transformed civilization.
We believe that Mesopotamians started making glass around 3000 BC (Merril 1989), and we can accurately date some glass artifacts to the mid-third millennium BC (Newman 1977:10). These were small items, such as beads and ornamental accents on larger pieces. At that time, glass was used as a synthetic stone. Although it could not have been cheaper than stone, it was probably an exciting novelty which may have offered colors not available in stone.
It would take another thousand years of continuous craftsmanship for the first glass vessels to appear in the Kingdom of Mittani, and then in Egypt, where the art of glass forming in Dynasty 18 workshops was raised to a level of refinement never surpassed. However, the extraordinarily time consuming methods they utilized limited the enjoyment of these sumptuous creations to the extremely wealthy.
Astoundingly, it would take another 1500 years for someone to discover that a lump of softened glass mounted at the end of a pipe could, like a soap bubble, be inflated by blowing. Glass blowing was born. The skill of Syrian workers
was so remarkable that within 20 or 30 years, they proved capable of developing almost all of the many inflation techniques still present nearly 2000 years later (Harden 1987). Suddenly, vessel shapes that took days to make could be fashioned in minutes. Glass would soon be available to wide segments of the population throughout the known world. For reasons unknown, but which may have had to do with the considerable amount of firewood required by glassworking (Newman (1977) notes that in American Colonial times you could build a two-story house with the wood required to melt a batch of glass), glassworkers were a highly mobile group. Developed on the Syrian coast, glass blowing know-how spread very rapidly throughout the Roman empire. No longer solely a high luxury item, glass packaging could foster commerce and improve hygiene everywhere. After three thousand years of slow germination, mankind had entered the glass age in one generation.
The initial invention of glass blowing, or inflation, was followed by numerous improvements and subsidiary technical developments.
The first blowpipes were probably made of clay. Within a hundred years, they were replaced by iron pipes, which were stronger and could be made longer, allowing the craftsman to work at a more comfortable distance.
Today so familiar, the workflow consisting of inflating the body of the vessel, working the foot, then transferring the piece to a pontil rod attached to the foot, so one could conveniently work the mouth of the vessel, did not become common until the end of the first century AD
The wad of glass that serves to attach the punty [pontil rod] to the bottom of the vessel leaves a pontil scar
Annular scars on ancient glass vessels suggest that many glassworkers used the blowpipe as a punty. . . (Stern 2001:20).
Before the invention of glass blowing, several established glass forming techniques used molds. So, blowing the glass into a two-part mold that would constrain and shape the bubble as well as provide surface texture, was a very natural evolution of known skills. This full-size mold-blowing technique was invented on the Syro-Palestinian coast, presumably in Sidon or vicinity, in the early first century CE (Stern 2001:26)
Conceptually much more novel--because it took full advantage of the plastic properties of molten glass, but also much faster was the pattern blowing technique. This consisted in inserting the blob of molten glass at the end of the blowpipe into a tapered one part mold that would give it surface texture, pulling it out, and then inflating it. It was a particularly effective way to create ribbed patterns, which could be swirled if desired. It was probably developed in the late third or early fourth century by Syrian glassblowers who began to expand geometric patterns made in full-size, multipart molds (Stern 2001:27).
Pinching, folding, cold-cutting, grinding, applying blobs, threads, and coils (a coil is a thick thread), either imbedded or in relief, were glassblowing techniques derived from earlier skills. One seemingly obvious operation not available, however, to early glass blowers was cutting soft glass. Stern (2001:21) explains that pivoted shears were not available to glassblowers during Roman times, and that the U shaped shears common at the time could not be used for that task. Many idiosyncrasies of Roman glass vessels, e.g. the way handles are drawn thin, folded back and forth at the point of attachment, and snapped off, rather than being clean cut, can be ascribed to the lack of pivoted shears. One operation that requires pivoted shears is that of trimming the rim after separating the vessel from the blowpipe. There is very little evidence that ancient glassblowers did this
Countless Roman glass vessels are proof that their makers were not perfectionists
If most glassworking techniques in use today had already been worked out by the middle of the Roman empire, glassmaking (which was carried out by a completely different group of craftsmen, not necessarily in the same location or even the same country) still suffered from a tragic misunderstanding of glass chemistry.
What makes glass glass is melted silica. But melting silica in its pure form requires high temperatures unattainable in antiquity. A mixture of silica (river sand) and an alkali such as sodium carbonate (natron or plant ashes) melts at much lower temperatures, resulting in water glass or sodium silicate. But sodium silicate is water soluble. The adjunction of lime fixes the glass so it wont dissolve in water. But that was not fully understood in antiquity, and we can only guess how large is the proportion of ancient glass that has completely disintegrated, leaving only those objects which happened accidentally to contain sufficient lime. Ancient glassmaking recipes indicate that the lime came either with the silica, for example in the form of crushed shells mixed with sea sand, or with the alkali [sodium carbonate], because some plants contain lime (Stern 1994:19). As pointed by Vandaveer (2002), favorite plants for the production of suitable ashes were the halophytes (saltworts), also known today as glassworts for obvious reasons. She further notes that Gerard's Herbal(1633) gives clues to both the etymology of the word alkali and the production method: "Saltwoort is called by the Arabians Kali, and Alkali...the...ashes hereof are named...Soda: of most Sal Alkali: diverse call it Alumen catinum. Stones are beaten to powder, & mixed with ashes, which being melted together become the matter whereof glasses are made.
In the three thousand years of glassworking before the invention of glass blowing, craftsmen had been able to produce a wide palette of colors, generally using metallic oxides (copper for blues, greens and reds, manganese for pinks and purplish reds and cobalt for deep blues), as well as a broad range of opacities. But in these early Roman times, the new ideal standard pursued was fully transparent and colorless glass which, according to Pliny (Nat. Hist. 36.198 and 37.204) was the most valuable product of the earth surface (Stern 2001:41). By the fourth century, with clear glass no longer a novelty, colored glass came back in fashion.
As splendid as they may have been, the original colors can hardly be more spectacular than the iridescence developed since, as a product of the aging process of glass completely unforeseen by the original artists.
Bibliography (for this item)
1989 Perfumes and Cosmetics in the Ancient World. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel. (44,46,49)
Fortuna Fine Arts, Ltd.,
1991 Shining Vessels: Ancient Glass from Greek, Roman, and Islamic Times. Fortuna Fine Arts, Ltd., New York, NY. (92)
Hurst Vose, Ruth
1975 Glass. The Connoisseur, London, United Kingdom. (82)
Münzen und Medaillen,
1986 Auktion 70. Kunswerke der Antike. Münzen und Medaillen, Basel, Swizerland. (16 #48)
1977 An Illustrated Dictionary of Glass. Thames and Hudson, London, UK. (322, 323)
Bibliography (on Glass Blowing)
Harden, Donald B.
1987 Glass of the Caesars. Olivetti, Milan, Italy.
Merrill, Nancy O.
1989 A Concise History of Glass Represented in the Chrysler Museum Glass Collection. The Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, VA.
1977 An Illustrated Dictionary of Glass. Thames and Hudson, London, UK.
Stern, E. Marianne, and Birgit Schlick-Nolte
1994 Early Glass of the Ancient World 1600 BC - AD 50 Ernesto Wolf Collection. Gerd Hatje, Ostfildern, Germany.
Stern, E. Marianne
2001 Roman, Byzantine, and Early Medieval Glass; 10 BCE-700 CE; Ernesto Wolf Collection. Hatje Cantz Publishers, Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany.
2002 How Were Plants Used to Make Glass?. http://www.killerplants.com/plants-that-changed-history/20020618.asp, World Wide Web.